Prize for citizen science; World Science Festival; scientists in Poliwood; and a first taste of National Science Week 2016

News from Inspiring Australia

2016 is off and running. The #ideasboom is rolling out with briefings around the country through March.

sciencesparkleCitizen science has received a funding injection through the National Innovation and Science Agenda—you can:

  • enter your success story for a new $10,000 prize for citizen science,
  • share knowledge through a dedicated citizen science association, or
  • see if your project can benefit from the work of thousands of volunteers as the official National Science Week project. Read on for details.

National Science Week—13-21 August—is the key date for science in Australia’s cultural calendar and a huge outreach opportunity. Last year’s program saw an estimated 1.3 million people participate in over 1,700 registered events around the country, with tens of millions more reached through the media coverage surrounding the initiative.

Think about how you can tap into Science Week and have a piece of the action this August.

National grants have been allocated, but there are several state and territory National Science Week grants programs open or soon to be announced, and grants of up to $500 available for schools. More below.

Today is the start of a mad March for science engagement:

  • Science meets Parliament starts tomorrow—follow it on Twitter via #smp2016,
  • Chief Scientist Alan Finkel will address the National Press Club tomorrow and US actor and science advocate Alan Alda will do so next week—both will be broadcast on ABC TV,
  • the World Science Festival Brisbane kicks off next week,
  • and there are science communication conferences in Brisbane and Perth. Read on for details.

Applications for Fresh Science are now open—a national science communication training initiative and competition that brings together scientists, the media and the public. Find out more below.

It’s also time to get in your entries for the 2016 Australian Museum Eureka Prizes, which will award prizes in 16 categories for research and innovation, leadership, science communication and school science.

In this bulletin, we also share the Unlocking Inspiration report, where you can read case studies of great science engagement projects, such as the VIZBIplus biomedical animation project, ScienceAlert on Facebook and citizen science tracking meteorites through Fireballs in the Sky. And we meet South Australia’s new Inspiring Australia manager Sheryn Pitman.

I’ll be heading up to Brisbane for the Australian Science Communicators conference and hosting a couple of World Science Festival events while in town. If you’re in town too, it would be good to catch up and hear what you’re planning for 2016.

Tanya Ha, Associate, Science in Public

On behalf of InspiringAustralia.net.au

In this newsletter:

  • Citizen science: funding boost, new $10,000 Eureka Prize and call for project ideas
  • Grants, robots and writing tips: sowing the seeds for Science Week
  • Nominate for Fresh Science: it’s young talent time
  • Science meets Parliament 2016: 200 working scientists descend on Canberra
  • Unlocking Inspiration report
  • Count down to the inaugural World Science Festival Brisbane
  • Chief Scientist Alan Finkel to headline science communication conference
  • From ABC to ecology to art-meets-science in SA

Citizen science: funding boost, new $10,000 Eureka Prize and call for project ideas

Citizen science innovators could win a new $10,000 Eureka Prize, submit their ideas for the National Science Week project and share knowledge through strengthened networks, thanks to Christopher Pyne’s new $930,000 #ideasboom citizen science funding package.

Minister for Industry, Innovation and Science Christopher Pyne recently announced the package, which aims to get more people of all ages and backgrounds to become more involved in science and research through three key initiatives:

  • the National Science Week ABC Citizen Science project,
  • recognition of excellence through the new Australian Museum Eureka Prize for Innovation in Citizen Science, and
  • support for the Australian Citizen Science Association, which will enable networking, collaboration and knowledge sharing among the many and diverse people and organisations involved in citizen science.

The Eureka Prize for Innovation in Citizen Science becomes the third in a suite of prizes for science communication, sponsored by the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science as part of the Inspiring Australia strategy. The other two are the Eureka Prizes for Science Journalism and Promoting Understanding of Australian Science Research.

The 2016 Australian Museum Eureka Prizes are now open. Encourage the great scientists and science communicators you know to enter.

Visit the Australian Citizen Science Association website for more information about the organisation.

Call for citizen science project ideas

Do you have an idea for an online citizen science project?

We’re looking for a great new idea for the 2016 National Science Week citizen science project. The chosen project will be built and produced by the ABC and promoted across their TV, radio and online channels.

Last year’s Galaxy Explorer project involved 18,000 citizen scientists classifying galaxies. Together, their contribution was equivalent to a research assistant working for 13 years.

Visit the Science Week website for more information.

Grants, robots and writing tips: sowing the seeds for Science Week

How will you and your organisation take advantage of National Science Week? It’s the national grassroots science festival that attracts around 1.3 million Australian and reaches millions more through news stories and social media.

A good event that engages the right audience takes time to plan, so now is the time to think about how you can get involved. The funded events included in last Friday’s announcement provide a good source of inspiration and ideas for your own potential activities.

Indigenous science, a ‘rock’ musical and pests in the pantry: federal grant recipients announced

Citizen science projects, art-science collaborations, and a singing palaeontologist are among the recipients of 41 grants totalling $500,000 that will help National Science Week come to life this August, Minister for Industry, Innovation and Science Christopher Pyne announced last week.

These initiatives will give Australians from all walks of life the opportunity to meet scientists, do science, discuss the hot topics and celebrate the contribution of Australian science to our society, culture and economy.

From examining the pests in Perth’s pantries to a mobile HealthLAB touring the Territory; from citizen scientists saving Nemo to celebrating Indigenous science and scientists at Redfern, Mr Pyne said Science Week festivities will play an important role both in inspiring the next generation of innovators and increasing community awareness of science in our everyday lives.

rock musical

See Minister Pyne’s full media release.

Read the summaries of the initiatives that have received federal grants.

Expressions of interest called for Sydney Science Festival

Expressions of interest are now open for the 2016 Sydney Science Festival—a core National Science Week initiative for the Harbour City, taking place from 11-21 August.

If you have an idea for an event, talk, workshop, tour or exhibition, the organisers want to know about it. You can submit planned National Science Week events to be part of Sydney Science Festival too.

Like Science Week, it’s free to submit an event. Submissions will be reviewed by the Festival program committee to make sure events meet a simple selection criteria around relevance, quality, engagement and feasibility. Selected events capitalise on the extensive publicity program planned for the Festival.

Applications close on 7 March.

Get more information and apply online, via the Festival website.

State and territory grants…

Missed out on a federal grant? There might be more opportunities closer to home.

Some states and territories have announced, or will soon announce, local grant programs. For example:

  • The 2016 NSW Regional Science Grants program is now open, offering grants from $2,000 to $10,000 in support of the Regional Science Hubs program. More information is online.
  • ACT National Science Week grants will open shortly. Information will be posted next week on the Inspiring the ACT website.
  • Tasmania’s seed grants round (small grants up to $500) for public events will open on 21 March. Information will be available then via org.au.
  • The WA National Science Week small grants (up to $2000) and Community Resource Centre micro-grants ($200) will be open for applications on 29 March. Information will be available then via the WA section of the Science Week website.

The Queensland National Science Week Co-ordinating Committee is also looking for ideas and bids to develop a launch for National Science Week in Queensland. They will award up to $10,000. See the Science Week website for details.

We will include further grant updates in the next Inspiring Australia newsletter. You can also stay in the loop by signing up for the dedicated National Science Week newsletter.

And grants for school

Need some extra cash to help students get into science week?

The Australian Science Teachers Association (ASTA), with funding assistance from the Australian Government, provides grants of up to $500 for school-initiated National Science Week activities.

All Australian schools—from pre-school to senior secondary—can apply. Applications open today and close on 22 April. See the website for details.

Each year, ASTA also produces teaching resources for schools. The 2016 schools theme is ‘Drones, Droids and Robots’—exploring autonomous technologies, how they work and their real-world applications in areas such as agriculture, mining, manufacturing, medicine, and space and deep ocean exploration. These will be available online later in the year.

Tips for writing a strong event description

speak bubbleYour Science Week event may be brilliant, but no one else will know without you telling and convincing them.

A strong and clear event description excites punters: tell them what will happen at the event, who will be speaking, and what they might get out of attending. And it can also help you get more media coverage.

Read our guide to writing a great Science Week event description online

Nominate for Fresh Science: it’s young talent time

The #ideasboom needs bright sparks ready and able to tell their science stories.

Do you know an exceptional early-career researcher who has made a peer-reviewed discovery and received little or no media attention?

Encourage them to nominate for Fresh Science—help them find their ‘story’ and their voice.

Freshies

Nominations are open for Fresh Science 2016, a national competition that selects early-career researchers with research results, an invention, or a discovery, trains them how to tell their story, and helps them share their findings with the media and the public.

For example, Trevor Chong’s research explains how you can remember things you didn’t have time to see, while Robert Pfeifer has described how mysterious particles called ‘anyons’ are like Mexican waves in quantum computing. Trevor and Robert—both Fresh Scientists from the class of 2015—can explain their research to a pub night audience in the time it takes a sparkler to burn.

Successful applicants will participate in a day of media and communication training, learning how to find and share the key, compelling ‘story’ in their research, followed by a public communication challenge.

Applicants can be researching in any field of science—from medicine to mathematics, from environmental science to computer science.

Nominations are now open and close 23 March.

Science meets Parliament 2016: 200 working scientists descend on Canberra

SmP

Science & Technology Australia (STA), the peak body for scientists and technologists, will bring 200 working scientists to Canberra for a two-day program of professional development and networking. The 16th annual Science meets Parliament takes place on 1 and 2 March, and aims to help scientists better communicate their science to the media, policymakers and parliamentarians.

This annual event is strongly supported by the Federal Government and Opposition, and engages a large number of MPs. It’s a unique opportunity for Australia’s scientists to share their work with our decision makers.

You can engage with the event via Twitter by following STA at @ScienceAU and the event hashtag #smp2016.

Read the wrap-up of last year’s event online.

Unlocking Inspiration report

From Fireballs in the Sky to finding where the wild things are in the ocean (and logging them with Redmap); from ScienceAlerts to Indigenous science education, the Unlocking Australia’s Potential grants program has engaged hundreds of thousands of people from all walks of life with science and technology.

Unlocking Australia’s Potential—a key component of the Australian Government’s Inspiring Australia strategy—provided $5 million in grant funding for 63 projects and hundreds of events across all states and territories between 2011 and 2014, reaching an estimated 470,000 people. The grants attracted $11 million in co-funding contributions and, significantly, over two-thirds of the projects are now continuing on their own resources.

The Unlocking Inspiration report shares the achievements of Unlocking Australia’s Potential, and is packed with examples of science communication and community engagement that have worked for different audiences and subject areas.

Read the report online for ideas and insights.

Count down to the inaugural World Science Festival Brisbane

  • Minds and machines: what makes us human?
  • Can we save our precious reefs in time?
  • How is music good for the mind?

These are just a few of the topics that will be explored at the World Science Festival Brisbane, running from 9 to 16 March 2016.

WSFThe World Science Festival takes science out of the laboratory and into the streets, parks, museums, galleries and premier performing arts venues.

The Queensland Museum in Brisbane will host the first World Science Festival outside of New York, featuring international thought leaders, local scientists and performers from around the Asia Pacific region.

Some of science’s brightest stars making special appearances at the festival include Emmy award-winning actor, author, science enthusiast and World Science Festival board member Alan Alda; Nobel Laureate physicist Brian Schmidt; pioneering marine biologist Sylvia Earle; celebrated astronaut Andy Thomas; renowned physicist, best-selling author and festival co-founder Brian Greene, and many more.

For more information, follow @WSFBrisbane and visit www.worldsciencefestival.com.au.

Chief Scientist Alan Finkel to headline science communication conference

The Australian Science Communicators is holding its conference in Brisbane to coincide with the Festival on Friday 11 March.

Hear from Australia’s new Chief Scientist Alan Finkel, the Associate Director of the Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science Christine O’Connell, the award-winning Editor-in-Chief of Cosmos magazine Elizabeth Finkel, and a stellar line up of other working science communicators, journalists and researchers.

Hear about and explore important topics, such as understanding and responding to people’s rejection of science and the future of science journalism.

For registration information and the full program, visit 2016conf.asc.asn.au and follow @auscicomm on Twitter.

Hey WA! If Brisbane is too far, here’s a local conference for you

Inspiring Australia WA’s second Communicate to Inspire conference is being held on 23 March. This is a professional development opportunity for science communicators across WA where they can network, develop skills in social media, explore citizen science, hear from and connect with innovators, and more.

Catriona Jackson, CEO of Science & Technology Australia will present the keynote address about science communication and policy.

See the conference Eventbrite page for more details.

From ABC to ecology to art-meets-science in SA

Meet Sheryn Pitman: a science communicator with a multidisciplinary background

SherynJust as diversity is important for a healthy natural environment, a diversity of experience is useful for science engagement—which is what Dr Sheryn Pitman brings to her role as the new program manager for Inspiring Australia in South Australia.

Writing for radio, government agency and stakeholder engagement, teaching, ecological literacy, sustainability and habitat restoration are just some of the skills and experience Sheryn brings to the job.

We asked her to tell us a bit more about herself:

What is your background?

Very multidisciplinary—my two passions are language and nature. Education-wise, a Bachelor of Arts majoring in English, Graduate Diploma in Education, Master in Environmental Studies, Diploma in Project Management and a PhD in Ecological Literacy.

I have spent much of my working life as a creative writer including theatre, radio, film and television. I taught humanities subjects in secondary schools for a while, and more recently have taught environmental science at university.

I spent seven years with Greening Australia managing revegetation and habitat restoration projects, as well as a youth environment program and community education. Then I spent over eleven years based at the Botanic Gardens of South Australia managing multi-agency partnerships in sustainability and ‘green infrastructure’.

That brings me to Inspiring Australia, where my love of both science and the arts come together!

What was your first job?

My first job was as a writer for an ABC radio series for children. The program was called Just Imagine. I was 15 and very fortunate to get such an opportunity so young.

What Inspiring Australia initiatives are happening in your area? Is there a success story or two that stand out?

We have been operating for only a few months, but we have four regional science hubs that are ticking along nicely. My trip to NSW with [Inspiring Australia NSW manager] Jackie Randles’ regional hub leadership forum was a personal highlight as I learned much about the possibilities and power of bringing sciences and arts together. This is something I really want to foster here.

What are the science strengths of South Australia?

Research organisations in South Australia undertake world-class research in a number of fields including photonics/optics, biomedical science, agriculture, wine, aquatic sciences, renewable energy, water management, paleontology, mining and probably more! We also have RiAus and science communication is strong here. Our state government is making science something of a priority and so we have a growing focus on science-related education.

Tell us about your favourite science-related TV show or movie

I am especially fond of David Attenborough and Brian Cox productions – I always find their styles and content most inspiring! However I also love Catalyst and the many programs that explore everything from DNA to the Universe. What an amazing world we live in!

What are you currently reading?

I have just finished Tim Winton’s Island Home – I am a Winton fan from way back. Just love his language skills and his insights into relationships between the Australian landscape and people.

What is the best thing about your job?

The potential to achieve creative, interesting and impactful outcomes that really do lead to more scientifically literate communities.

What is the most challenging thing/issue you face in your work?

The mountain of administrative tasks!

If you could give science communicators one piece of advice, what would it be?

I believe that effective science communication is just about the most important thing we can do to achieve a healthy and sustainable world. Every day every person makes countless decisions about how they live, work and play, and for these decisions to be wholesome and wise, our communities do need to be well-informed. So find a way—make science fun and entertaining for sure, but never dumb it down (my pet annoyance)!

1 comment on “Prize for citizen science; World Science Festival; scientists in Poliwood; and a first taste of National Science Week 2016”

  1. Hari Vishvanath Naavangul Reply

    THE ENVIRONMENT AND UNIVERSE

    In cricket bodyline bowling is not welcome; so also is environment care negligence. Living and nonliving in visible and invisible brackets carry mass with soul energy element proportionately. This is based upon ageing factor in everything that exists. Any medical treatment, internally or externally, is supported by its assimilation inside the living body .This is by natural run of veins and related functionaries. If this does not happen, recovery is difficult. The natural function inside the body frame is a riddle. Surrounding waves extend surprising support around living and nonliving. They possess pure atomic sub particles to build up bridges to come closer to the nature for welfare. Here lies the attention. The natural nourishing atomic sub particles moving constantly under the universal umbrella get polluted due to throwing waste and also noise and space disturbances. To indicate a small example, throwing wrappers or skins of fruits, spitting on roads amounts to grave pollution and instantly harms the concerned and others by intake of polluted atmosphere. “Take garbage home’ is the only solution. As per the wrong intake, body gives signals for disturbances in health; similarly the nature due to pollution reflects problem indicators. Polluted waves render negative effect, making any treatment ineffective. To start with right format, pollution should not be spread anywhere any time. More the clean environment, more the healthy atomic sub particle waves to keep good health parameters. Any advance health care modes would not demonstrate proper response from the living body surrounded by polluted atomic sub particles. Nature produces everything and also takes care by natural pollution free waves which need environment care.

    Even in day to day life, cleanliness is vital all around. Nature in the original frame presents clean atmosphere and gives calls in the event of pollution. Nature heals to a major extent in health care. It is hence evident how important is the nature and how moving atomic sub particles require to be protected by pollution free environment? The existence of infinite objects including the earth in the universal stadium undertakes the prime function not to disturb the natural phenomenon. There has to be environment care race to form a part of Olympics activities. Pollution is nothing but bodyline bowling which the nature, the universal umpire, disallows to avoid crisis situations. Once again study of black holes which disposes the mass let off by ageing objects in space would help to get rid of waste on the earth to start with, followed by strict pollution control. In addition surrounding strength of atomic sub particles can be also analyzed to use for incinerating polluting elements. Even though substantial living in the form of animals, small creatures, birds, fish etc. does not have permanent abodes and remains in groups in different locations as per movements, it does not disturb the natural system. Smallest flies too fly so as not create traffic jam. Surprisingly trees extending shades and shelter are in static positions to avoid congestion in traffic. This sector does not pollute environment. Atomic sub particles on auto basis help in rendering beautiful seasons and offer help in meeting various living requirements. If excellent roads, footpaths with railings for pedestrians in cities, towns and villages in the world are developed and maintained with most attractive dustbins placement

    2
    indicating dangers of pollution, tendency of spreading any waste would be discouraged. Further particularly college, school students can be encouraged to use bicycles to build up health thus helping on reduction of energy fuel and also delivering atmospheric care. This approach can be promoted by free parking for bicycles and also some educational assistance. Bicycle manufacturers all over the world may with innovative ideas manufacture lightweight, durable, reasonably priced models to encourage sales amongst youngsters with a slogan ‘Love and Care the Nature’. In addition, bicycle riders- tracks may be thought of for villages, towns and cities in the world to encourage all age groups to ride bicycles, thus joining the Nature’s Health Welfare University. World tours on bicycles can also be arranged with stop points having necessary facilities. Charity Organizations may kindly donate bicycles in these efforts. In fact The Environment Care Drive may think on a logo based on ‘clear sky and rainbow’. Developed countries, United Nations and also world citizens may jointly cooperate in this grand endeavor with advanced technology on priority basis. The universe is the creation by waves with inbuilt atomic strength, which is the main foundation for visible and invisible formations in space house in the infinite range and it is an open assembly. When atomic sub particles are capable of such wonders why not segregate same for our needs by which approach there would be abundance in our requirements round the clock. In short the universe is atomic strength and vice versa; these sub particles in waves are pure at the outset and render positive trends to maintain balance continuously. When the natural phenomenon is on a foolproof system and is capable to give basic elements like eyes to all living including the smallest ones; then the universe by itself must be having infinite eyes, hands in its body form to control any imbalance magnificently. The whole scenario is the splendid grandeur of the nature concealed within without uncertainties and probabilities for the continuous safe run. Hence analysis and segregation of sub particles would go a long way to meet essential needs for welfare.
    The sun gives light, the moon sheds soothing reflected light which does not happen on calculations but something beyond mathematics. The infinite universe may be operating on tapping with balanced auto run of sub particles. This is the real affectionate cooperation without any expectation. It is high time to go hand in hand with the nature by not even thinking in disturbing its performance. Discoveries in various areas are possible only because of natural laws and backup energy. If this system does not respond in the polluted environment, engineering equations as of now would need changes and affect the energy outputs. Finally the source of solving all problems lies in atomic sub particles. By clean environment it is possible to keep the natural rhythm, thus also enabling the mother earth from ageing in particular and the universal setup in general.
    H V Navangul
    Age 82

    CALCULATIONS AND UNIVERSAL BALANCED FUNCTION
    Arithmetical calculation is the origin and deals with numbers like addition, subtraction, division and multiplication and algebra with numbers and variables. Arithmetic is the basic branch (number theory) and algebra is the reunion of broken parts.
    a) 7+2=9 and 2+7=9 arithmetic
    b) 2t+2f=2f+2t algebra.
    c) If values of ‘t and f’ differ, the equation cannot stand which is not the case with definite figures in arithmetic.
    Algebra searches unknown. If something is needed in market, so it is ‘x’ and if it is a pen,’x’ is a pen. Look at the sky; can we account correctly how many stars are? The answer is ‘no’ and so it is taken as ‘x’, then known (assumed) are 1, 00,000; the equation will be x-1, 00,000=’y’. Here both ‘x and y’ are unknown. When ‘y’ is determined, then riddle is solved, as ‘x’ value is discovered. For all probable variables, algebra is the route. When search is completed, equations stand tall. But again equations are not as tall for assessing secrets of the nature with infinite form and a fraction may be perhaps known, that too depending upon variances, termed as universe. So unknown can be bracketed in algebra as ‘x, y, and z’ as quantifying numbers are hidden and not figured out. To know the natural function of the universe, a combined capsule of arithmetic and algebra is applied. Is there any other mode for accounting without this help? Whether arithmetic or algebra, it is based on earth conditions and relevant response alone. To locate universal secrets, the relativity has to stand between the earth and the universal objects as a whole. Considering harmony, there may be some common universal laws for all objects which can be reached by terming as unknown in algebra. In fact a single path of original branch of arithmetic would help better; as for unknown factors zero ‘0’ can be used; at the most 01, 02, 03 instead of ‘a, b, c or x’ for equations in algebra, making mathematics simpler. Universal operations are without linking past, present, future and based on the simplest but permanent auto calculations on friction and tapping with relevant fluctuations of gravitation, anti-gravitation and reflection. This study can be framed in advanced arithmetic.
    When the universe came into being, undoubtedly it is with series of continued bangs that too with sustained time gaps in expanding travel. Is there any energy Centre to spread the empire? If it is invisible; then only two divisions surface; visible and invisible covering living and nonliving. Both carries soul energy, the former is self-activated and latter is not as here soul energy is limited to its static position unless activated externally. The universe is a capsule of mass and energy. Living activates mass for specific results; but mass is also activated by the nature to provide air, water, light etc. This is out of self-generated tapping transformation. Force, friction with mass resulting in velocity are the prime factor to promote bangs, one after other; as a single bang cannot frame out the sprawling universe. The energy output is as per the beats of mass contact with velocity which gets on to a recycle scenario for the final result. However the system is on the footing of tapping and twisting of mass by velocity on auto rhythm. It would be interesting to know the beginning of beginning to meet the recycle process. All this is not followed by the nature as per mathematics but by
    2
    harmonious relativity and behaviour. The universal energy follows ground rules of gravitation, anti-gravitation and reflection. Friction of mass and velocity are the building blocks of energy which is invisible. The velocity is with variances as per activation of mass and it is a combined capsule of time and space. Even gravitation and anti-gravitation impact factors of objects including the earth explain development of seasons. Gravitation and anti-gravitation range differs from object to object surfaces resulting in differences in seasonal climate. The nature with infinite setup has tapping transformation behaviour without any balance sheets and profit and loss account. The universal function only knows to give expecting nothing. Here lies the responsibility for keeping the environment clean for the simple reason that then only the nature can offer healthy and happy life.
    Dr.Einstein stated- it is an uncritical attitude to declare statistical character of the nature to be a fact but up to now we do not have any other theory. The nature stood for an orderly system obeying rules which could be discovered with courage and imagination. He even with his famous energy mass formula agreed that there must be something behind energy and was in search of systems which might open up secrets of the nature without any probabilities. In this context, it is rather surprising to note squares of 1 and 2 which are 1 and 4 respectively against the norm that square of same figure is more than the addition which states 1+1=2 and 2+2=4. So the values of a2 and b2, standing at 1 and 2 would present a different scenario in practical energy application routes.
    Force delivers velocity by friction with mass with variances as per gravitation and anti-gravitation on surface conditions. Time and space is a part of velocity and not in isolation. Hence study of velocity in reference to mass, gravitation and anti-gravitation is of utmost importance. For this no accounting system fits in to understand the infra-structure of the universe as a whole since it functions on auto principles without uncertainties. Here beats of bits of atomic sub particles in space may render some support in our understanding. The knowledge to know the universe with its infinite source empire is by its sound language which lifts tapping transformation. This will bring in such routes for the use of minimum resources and expenses to achieve the best maximum outputs. For example, one of the immeasurable objects, the sun alone is capable to provide light for the limitless areas.

    H V Navangul
    Age 82

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